Category Archives: Jidai fudō uta’awase

Jidai fudō uta’awase 44

Round Forty-Four

Left

むかしせしわがかねごとのかなしきはいかにちぎりしなごりなるらん

mukashi seshi
wa ga kanegoto no
kanashiki wa
ika ni chigirishi
nagorinaruran
Long ago did
I promise, but
Might the sadness
Of how I did once vow
Be my only keepsake?

87[i]

Right

かたみとてみればなみだのふかみ草なになかなかのにほひなるらむ

katami tote
mireba namida no
fukamigusa
nani nakanaka no
nioinaruramu
‘For a keepsake,’ I think and
Gaze, but my tears are
As peonies—
Why do they so
Brightly shine?

88[ii]


[i] GSS XI: 710: Taira no Sadafun had been conversing with a lady at the residence of Major Counsellor Kunitsune in great secrecy and matters had progressed to the point that they had vowed to be with each other to the end, when the lady was abruptly welcomed into the residence of the late Grand Minister, so he had no way at all of even exchanging letters with her; thus, when the lady’s five year old child was playing in the western wing of the minister’s mansion, Sadafun called her over and saying, ‘Show this to your mother,’ wrote this on her upper arm.

[ii] The text of this contest appears to be the only occurrence of this poem in the waka canon, so it is unclear where Gotoba may have encountered it.

Jidai fudō uta’awase 43

Round Forty-Three

Left

まくらよりまたしる人もなき恋をなみだせきあへずもらしつるかな

makura yori
mata shiru hito mo
naki koi o
namida seki aezu
morashitsuru kana
Other than my pillow
Still not a soul should know
Of my love, but
My tears, ever undammed,
Have leaked out!

Taira no Sadafun
85[i]

Right

をはつせの花のさかりをみわたせばかすみにまがふみねのしら雲

ohatsuse no
hana no sakari o
miwataseba
kasumi ni magau
ne no shirakumo
When at Hatsuse
Across the blossoms’ profusion
I cast my gaze
Entangled in haze are
The clouds of white upon the peak.

Senior Assistant Governor-General of Dazai, Shige’ie
86[ii]


[i] KKS XIII: 670: Topic unknown.

[ii] SZS I: 74: Composed as a poem on blossom, when he held a poetry match.

Jidai fudō uta’awase Poets (Japanese)

Here is are the poets in the match with their names/titles given in romanised transcription as well as Japanese script.

LeftRight
Kakinomoto no Hitomaro 柿本人麿Dainagon Tsunenobu 大納言経信
Yamabe no Akahito 山辺赤人Hosshōji nyūdō zenkampaku dajō daijin 法性寺入道前関白太政大臣
Chūnagon Yakamochi 中納言家持Chūnagon Kunizane 中納言国信
Sangi Ono no Takamura 参議小野篁Saigyō hōshi 西行法師
Chūnagon Yukihira 中納言行平Kōtaigōgū daibu Toshinari 皇太后宮大夫俊成
Sōjō Henjō 僧正遍昭Zendaisōjō Jien 前大僧正慈円
Ono no Komachi 小野小町Shōsam’mi Ietaka 正三位家隆
Ariwara no Narihira ason 在原業平朝臣Gokyōgoku sessho zendajōdaijin 後京極摂政前太政大臣
Fujiwara no Toshiyuki ason 藤原敏行朝臣Tango 丹後
Ise 伊勢Fujiwara no Kiyosuke ason 藤原清輔朝臣
Motoyoshi shin’nō 元良親王Gonchūnagon Sada’ie 権中納言定家
Sosei hōshi 素性法師Suri daibu Akisue 修理大夫顕季
Ariwara no Motokata 在原元方Naka no in udaijin 中院右大臣
Engi 延喜Gohosshōji nyūdō zenkampaku dajōdaijin 後法性寺入道前関白太政大臣
Taira no Sadafun 平貞文Dazai daini Shige’ie 大宰大弐重家
Chūnagon Kanesuke 中納言兼輔Gonchūnagon Toshitada 権中納言俊忠
Ki no Tomonori 紀友則Ryōzen hōshi 良暹法師
Ki no Tsurayuki 紀貫之Sakyō daibu Akisuke 左京大夫顕輔
Ōshikōchi no Mitsune 凡河内躬恒Murasaki Shikibu 紫式部
Mibu no Tadamine 壬生忠岑Minamoto no Toshiyori ason 源俊頼朝臣
Sangi Minamoto no Hitoshi ason 参議源等朝臣Ichi no miya no Kii 一宮紀伊
Ōe no Chisato 大江千里Sangi Masatsune 参議雅経
Sakanoue no Korenori 坂上是則Shun’e hōshi 俊恵法師
Kiyowara no Fukayabu 清原深養父Fujiwara no Norinaka ason 藤原範永朝臣
Semimaru 蝉麿Nōin hōshi 能因法師
Seishin-kō 清慎公Sutoku-in 崇徳院
Chūnagon Atsutada 中納言敦忠Sagami 相摸
Saigū nyōgo 斎宮女御Shikishi naishin’nō 式子内親王
 Ukon 右近Koshikibu no naishi 小式部内侍
Nakatsukasa 中務Hanazono sadaijin 花薗左大臣
Minamoto no Sane’akira 源信明Keibukyō Norikane 刑部卿範兼
Kentoku-kō 謙徳公Shirakawa-in 白河院
Taira no Kanemori 平兼盛Fujiwara no Hideyoshi/Hidetō 藤原秀能
Minamoto no Shitagō 源順Jakunen/Jakuzen hōshi 寂然法師
Michitsuna-kyō no haha 道綱卿母Kojijū 小侍従
Ōnakatomi no Yoshinobu 大中臣能宣Hōribe no Narinaka 祝部成仲
Kiyowara no Motosuke 清原元輔Fujiwara no Takanobu ason 藤原隆信朝臣
Minamoto no Shigeyuki 源重之Jakuren hōshi 寂蓮法師
no naishi 高内侍Sanuki 讃岐
Kazan-in 華山院Gotokudaiji sadaijin 後徳大寺左大臣
Egyō hōshi 恵慶法師Fujiwara no Mototoshi 藤原基俊
Sone no Yoshitada 曾禰好忠Zenchūnagon Masafusa 前中納言匡房
Minamoto no Michinari 源道済Sakon chūjō Kinhira 左近中将公衡
Fujiwara no Nagayoshi/Nagatō 藤原長能Ōkurakyō Ari’ie 大蔵卿有家
Fujiwara no Sanekata ason 藤原実方朝臣Taikenmon’in Horikawa 待賢門院堀川
Fujiwara no Michinobu ason 藤原道信朝臣Daisōjō Gyōson 大僧正行尊
Nakatsukasakyō Tomohira shinnō 中務卿具平親王Guei 愚詠
Uma no naishi 馬内侍Gonchūnagon Morotoki 権中納言師時
Akazome’emon 赤染衛門Inpumon’in no Taiyu 殷富門院大輔
Izumi Shikibu 和泉式部Kunaikyō 宮内卿

Jidai fudō uta’awase

The Jidai fudō uta’awase 時代不同歌合, or the ‘Poetry Match of Differing Ages’ is what’s known as a senka awase 選歌合, or ‘match of selected poems’, where the are selected according to principles set by the ‘organiser’ of the match and assembled into an uta’awase format. While these types of matches can be created for specific purposes, or events, more often the purpose is critical – to showcase differences in approach to topics or images by different poets.

In the case of this match, the ‘organiser’ was former Emperor Gotoba (1180-1239; r. 1183-1198) while in exile on the island of Oki in the late 1230s, making it one of the last poetic endeavours of his life. His purpose, as should be apparent from the match’s title, was to demonstrate how poets from different historical periods approached similar topics. He provided no judgements, or commentary, on his text, so we have no way of knowing which poems he felt were superior, or even if that was a consideration.

For the match he selected three poems each by one hundred poets, producing a match in three hundred rounds. The poets of the left, the ancient poets, date from the late seventh through to the mid-eleventh century, while the poets of the right, the modern poets, date from the mid-eleventh through to early-mid thirteenth century, although only five of them would still have been living at the time Gotoba assembled the match, including the former emperor himself.

The poets names are given below, and many will be familiar as major and significant poets of their time. A substantial number of these poets are also represented in the Ogura hyakunin isshu 小倉百人一首 collection of one hundred exemplary poems by famous poets, which is thought to have been initially worked on by Fujiwara no Teika (1162-1241) around 1235 or later, making it contemporaneous with this match.

Poets

LeftRight
Kakinomoto no Hitomaro (late C7th)Middle Counsellor [Minamoto no] Tsunenobu (1016-1097)
Yamabe no Akahito (active 724-737)The Hosshōji Lay Priest and Former Chancellor and Palace Minister [Fujiwara no Tadamichi] (1097-1164)
Middle Counsellor [Ōtomo no] Yakamochi (ca. 716-785)Middle Counsellor [Minamoto no] Kunizane (1069-1111)
Consultant Ono no Takamura (802-853)Monk Saigyō (1118-1190)
Middle Cousellor [Ariwara no] Yukihira (818-893)Master of the Dowager Empress Household Office [Fujiwara no] Toshinari [Shunzei] (1114-1204)
Archbishop Henjō (816-890?)Former Major Archbishop Jien (1155-1225)
Ono no Komachi (f) (ca. 833-857)[Fujiwara no] Ietaka, Senior Third Rank (1158-1237)
Lord Ariwara no Narihira (825-880)The Gokyōgoku Regent and Former Palace Minister [Saionji Kintsune] (1171-1244)
Lord Fujiwara no Toshiyuki (?-901/907)Tango (f) (dates unknown)[i]
Ise (f) (877?-940?)Lord Fujiwara no Kiyosuke (1104-1177)
Prince Motoyoshi (890-943)Supernumerary Middle Counsellor [Fujiwara no] Sada’ie [Teika] (1162-1241)
Monk Sosei (ca. 844-910)Master of the Palace Repairs Office [Fujiwara no] Akisue (1055-1123)
Ariwara no Motokata (active late 800s-900s)The Naka no in Minister of the Right [Minamoto no Masasada源 雅定] (1094-1162)
Engi [Emperor Daigo] (884-930; r. 987-930)The Later Hosshōji Lay Priest and Former Chancellor and Palace Minister [Fujiwara no Kanezane] (1149-1207)
Taira no Sadafun (870?-923?)Senior Assistant Governor-General of Dazai, [Fujiwawa no] Shige’ie (1128-1181)
Middle Counsellor [Fujiwara no] Kanesuke (877-933)Supernumerary Middle Counsellor [Fujiwara no] Toshitada (1073-1123)
Ki no Tomonori (850?-904?)Monk Ryōzen [ca. 998-1064]
Ki no Tsurayuki (872?-945)Master of the Left Capital Office [Fujiwara no] Akisuke (1090-1155)
Ōshikōchi no Mitsune (active 898-922)Murasaki Shikibu (f) (?-1014?)
Mibu no Tadamine (active 898-920)Lord Minamoto no Toshiyori [Shunrai] (1055?-1129?)
Consultant Minamoto no Hitoshi (880-951)Kii, in service to the First Princess[ii] (mid-Heian period)
Ōe no Chisato (active 889-923)Consultant [Asukai] Masatsune (1170-1221)
Sakanoue no Korenori (?-930)Monk Shun’e (1113-1191?)
Kiyowara no Fukayabu (dates unknown)Lord Fujiwara no Norinaga (993-?)
Semimaru (dates unknown)Monk Nōin (988-1051)
Seishin-kō [Fujiwara no Saneyori] (900-970)Former Emperor Sutoku (1119-1164; r. 1123-1142)
Middle Counsellor [Fujiwara no] Atsutada (906-943)Sagami (f) (1000?-?)
The Ise Virgin and Junior Consort [Princess Yoshiko (Kishi)] (929-985) (f)Imperial Princess Shikishi (f) (1149-1201)
Ukon (f) (active 933-966)Handmaid Koshikibu (f) (999?-1025)
Nakatsukasa (f) (912-991)The Hanazono Minister of the Left [Minamoto no Arihito 源有仁] (1103-1147)
Minamoto no Sane’akira (910-970)Minister of Justice [Fujiwara no] Norikane (1107-1165)
Kentoku-kō [Fujiwara no Koretada/Koremasa藤原 伊尹] (924-972)Former Emperor Shirakawa (1053-1129; r. 1073-1087)
Taira no Kanemori (?-991)Fujiwara no Hideyoshi/Hidetō (1184-1240)
Minamoto no Shitagō (911-983)Monk Jakunen/Jakuzen (1118?-?)
The Mother of Lord Michitsuna (f) (935?-995)Kojijū (f) (1121-1202)
Ōnakatomi no Yoshinobu (921-991)Hōribe no Narinaka (1099-1191)
Kiyowara no Motosuke (908-990)Lord Fujiwara no Takanobu (1142-1205)
Minamoto no Shigeyuki (?-1000?)Monk Jakuren (1139?-1202?)
Kō no naishi [Takashina no Takako (Kishi) 高階 貴子] (?-996) (f)Sanuki (f) (1141?-1217?)[iii]
Former Emperor Kazan (968-1008; r. 984-986)The Later Tokudaiji Minister of the Left [Tokudaiji Sanesada 徳大寺 実定] (1139-1192)
Monk Egyō (dates unknown)Fujiwara no Mototoshi (1060-1142)
Sone no Yoshitada (dates unknownFormer Middle Counsellor [Ōe no] Masafusa (1041-1111)
Minamoto no Michinari (?-1019)[Fujiwara no] Kinhira Middle Captain of the Inner Palace Guards, Left Division (1158?-1193)
Fujiwara no Nagayoshi/Nagatō (949-1009)Minister of the Treasury [Fujiwara no] Ari’ie (1155-1216)
Lord Fujiwara no Sanekata (958-998)Taikenmon’in Horikawa (f) (dates unknown)
Lord Fujiwara no Michinobu (972-994)Major Archbishop Gyōson (1055/57-1135)
Minister of Central Affairs, Prince Tomohira (964-1009)A Fool’s Composition [Gotoba] (1180-1239; r. 1183-1198)
Uma no naishi (f) (949-1011)Supernumerary Middle Counsellor [Minamoto no] Morotoki (1077-1136)
Akazome Emon (f) (active 976-1041)Inpumon’in no Taiyu (dates uknown; active 1130-1200) (f)
Izumi Shikbu (f) (976?-?)Kunaikyō (f) (dates unknown)

See here for a list of the poets names and titles in romanised transcription and Japanese script.

Go to the contest’s poems here.


[i] This poet has a range of sobriquets, although she is most commonly known as Tango, in service to former Empress Taeko (Gishūmon’in no tango宜秋門院丹後), as she was a lady-in-waiting to Kujō Taeko (Ninshi) 九条任子 (1173-1239), known posthumously as Gishūmon’in 宜秋門院, who was empress to Emperor Gotoba. Tango’s other sobriets are Tango in service to the Regent’s Household (Sesshō-ke no tango 摂政家丹後), Tango-shōjō 丹後少将 and the Nun Tango (Tango zen’ni 丹後禅尼).

[ii] More commonly known as Kii, from the Residence of Imperial Princess Sukeko (Yūshi-naishinnōke no kii 祐子内親王家紀伊).     

[iii] More generally known as Sanuki from the Nijō Palace (Nijō’in no sanuki 二条院讃岐).

Jidai fudō uta’awase 42

Round Forty-Two

Left

はかなくもあけにけるかな朝露のおきてののちぞきえまさりける

hakanaku mo
akenikeru kana
asatsuyu no
okite no nochi zo
kiemasarikeru
How swiftly
Dawn has broken!
The morning dew
Arises, then
Vanishes so skillfully—as do you!

83[i]

Right

ながらへてかはるこころをみるよりはあふにいのちをかへてましやは

nagaraete
kawaru kokoro o
miru yori wa
au ni inochi o
kaetemashi ya wa
To live on and
Your inconstant heart
See—Would I rather
For a meeting my life
Exchange

84[ii]


[i] SKKS XIII: 1171: Presented to the Ōmi Concubine.

[ii] A minor variant on SZS XIV: 881: Composed on the conception of unmet love with varying emotions, when he was ordered to produce a hundred poem sequence.

Jidai fudō uta’awase 41

Round Forty-One

Left

むらさきの色にこころはあらねどもふかくぞ人をおもひそめつる

murasaki no
iro ni kokoro wa
aranedomo
fukaku zo hito o
omoisometuru
The violet[i]
Hue is in my heart
Nowhere to be found
Yet deeply have you
Started to stain my thoughts.

81[ii]

Right

しのぶるに心のひまはなけれどもなほもる物はなみだなりけり

shinoburu ni
kokoro ni hima wa
nakeredomo
nao moru mono wa
namida narikeri
Secretly longing,
My heart has cracks
Not a one, yet
Still leaking out are
My tears.

82[iii]


[i] The colour violet (murasaki), was renowned as being particularly deep, so the implication is that Daigo’s love is deeper than the deepest dye.

[ii] SKKS XI: 995: Sent to the Chūjō Junior Consort.

[iii] SKKS XI: 1037: Hidden love, when he composed a Hundred Poem Sequence.

Jidai fudō uta’awase 40

Round Forty

Left

あし引の山郭公けふとてやあやめの草のねにたててなく

ashihiki no
yamahototogisu
kyō tote ya
ayame no kusa no
ne ni tatete naku
Leg wearying,
The mountain cuckoo,
Knowing today, perhaps,
On the sweet-flag
Roots does perch and sing.

Engi

79[i]

Right

ゆふさればをののあさぢふ玉ちりてこころくだくる風の音かな

yū sareba
ono no asajū
tama chirite
kokoro kudakuru
kaze no oto kana
When the evening comes
All across the cogon-grass plain
Scatter gemstones—
Heart-tangling is
The sound of wind!

The Later Hosshōji Lay Priest and Former Chancellor and Palace Minister

80[ii]


[i] SIS II: 111: Topic unknown.

[ii] SZS IV: 272: Composed as an autumn poem.

Jidai fudō uta’awase 39

Round Thirty-Nine

Left

たちかへりあはれとぞおもふよそにても人に心をおきつしらなみ

tachikaeri
aware to zo omou
yoso nite mo
hito ni kokoro o
okitsu shiranami
Rising and returning,
Filled with love,
However distant
You are, my heart
Lifts with the whitecaps.

77[i]

Right

あふことはいつとなぎさのはま千どり浪のたちゐにねをのみぞなく

au koto wa
itsu to nagisa no
hamachidori
nami no tachi’i ni
ne o nomi zo naku
Our meeting—
When will it be? On the seashore
The plovers on the beach
Amid the rising waves
Simply let out sobbing cries!

78[ii]


[i] KKS XI: 474: Topic unknown.

[ii] KYS VII: 361/384: Topic unknown.

Jidai fudō uta’awase 38

Left

おとは山おとにききつつあふさかのせきのこなたにとしをふるかな

otowa yama
oto ni kikitsutsu
ausaka no
seki no konata ni
tose o furu kana
As wing-beats in the mountains
Do I hear tell of you;
But on Meeting Hill
Barrier’s inner side
Must I spend my days?

75[i]

Right

ありすがはおなじながれはかはらねどみしやむかしの影ぞわすれぬ

arisugawa
onaji nagare wa
kawaranedo
mishi ya mukashi no
kage zo wasurenu
The Arisu River’s
Flow is just the same and
All unchanged, yet
She who saw it, long ago—
Her face never will I forget!

76[ii]


[i] KKS XI: 473: Topic unknown.

[ii] SKKS VIII: 827: After the death of Imperial Princess Shinshi, he had heard that Imperial Princess Sōshi was to move to her former residence, so he went to inspect it, but found everything unchanged; deep in memories of the distant past, he said this to one of the ladies-in-waiting.

Jidai fudō uta’awase 37

Round Thirty-Seven

Left

かすみたつ春の山辺はとほけれどふきくる風は花のかぞする

kasumi tatsu
haru no yamabe wa
tōkeredo
fukikuru kaze wa
hana no ka zo suru
Hazes rise
Round the mountains’ sides,
So far away, and yet
The gusting breeze comes
Bearing the scent of blossom.

Ariwara no Motokata

73[i]

Right

たづねきてたをるさくらの朝露に花のたもとのぬれぬ日ぞなき

tazunekite
taoru sakura no
asatsuyu ni
hana no tamoto no
nurenu hi zo naki
I pay a visit and
Pluck, with my hand, a stem of cherry blossom;
The morning dew
My springtime sleeves
Dampens every single day!

The Naka-no-in Minister of the Right

74[ii]


[i] KKS II: 103: A poem from the Poetry Contest held by Her Majesty, the Empress Dowager, during the Reign of the Kanpyō Emperor.

[ii] SZS I: 53: Composed on the conception of seeing blossom every morning.